List of Abbreviations

This directory lists and explains abbreviations that appear in Embedded Academy e-learning courses.

  • AC

    Alternating Current

    An electric current which periodically changes its direction and magnitude.

  • AES

    Advanced Encryption Standard

    A symmetric encryption method, which is the successor of the DES.

  • ANSI

    American National Standards Institute

    ANSI is an American organisation which coordinates the development of voluntary consensus standards in the USA. ANSI is a private non-profit organisation.

  • API

    Application Programming Interface

    The API is a software interface connecting computers or computer programs.


    AUTOSAR Extensible Markup Language

    An AUTOSAR xml file is an xml file standardized by AUTOSAR.

  • AS

    Attack Scenarios

    A scenario that describes the steps and ways in which the attacker could exploit a vulnerability.


    Automotive Software Process Improvement and Capability Determination

    Standard in the automotive industry, which is based on the current version of the ISO/IEC 330xx series.


    AUTomotive Open System ARchitecture

    Standard which establishes an open and standardized software architecture for automotive electronic control units.


    AUTOSAR™ Operating System

    Operating System defined by AUTOSAR.

  • Autosar SecOC

    Autosar Secure Onboard Communication

    SecOC is an AUTOSAR module that provides PDU (message) integrity and authentication.

  • BEV

    Battery Electric Vehicle

    BEV is a type of EV which uses the chemical energy stored in (rechargable) battery packs as its sole source of propulsion. Hence, instead of internal combustion engines, electric motors and motor controllers are used.

  • CAN

    Controller Area Network

    High speed bus system.

  • CAN FD

    Controller Area Network Flexible Data Rate

    CAN FD increases the effective data-rate by allowing longer data fields.

  • CC

    Constant Current Charging

    A form of charging where the charger supplies a relatively constant current.

  • CNG

    Compressed Natural Gas

    CNG is a type of fuel gas. It is made out of natural gas (mainly composed of methane) and heavily compressed to less than 1% of its standard atmospheric pressure volume. Consequently, storage and distribution happen in hard containers.

  • CP

    Control Pilot

    Name of the connector system/line which is used for the transmission of communication information.

  • CPU

    Central Processing Unit

    The CPU is a very important part of every computer. It does calculations and executes instructions.

  • CRC

    Cyclic Redundancy Check

    Complex procedure using polynomial division to check data in order to detect errors in the transmission or storage of data.

  • CTE

    Coefficient of Thermal Expansion

    The CTE indicates how much a material can expand upon heating.

  • CV

    Constant Voltage Charging

    In constant voltage charging, the full current of the charger can flow into the battery. This is stopped when the power supply reaches the pre-set voltage.

  • DC

    Direct Current

    Electric current which flows in only one direction.

  • DCB

    Direct Copper Bonded

    A type of substrate which is often used in power modules due its good thermal conductivity. It is made out of a ceramic tile (commonly alumina) and copper sheets.

  • DES

    Data Encryption Standard

    A symmetric encryption method.

  • DOD

    Depth of Discharge

    The depth of discharge indicates the percentage (or fraction) of the capacity which has been removed from a fully-charged battery.

  • DS

    Damage Scenario

  • DTC

    Direct Torque Control

    Method used in variable-frequency drives to control the torque (and thus finally the speed) of three-phase AC electric motors.

  • ECU

    Electronic Control Unit

    Electronic module, which is responsible for the control and adjustment of the operation of a car or machine.

  • EM

    Electrical Machine

    A device which converts electrical energy into mechanical energy and vice versa. Hence, we differ between motor mode and generator mode depending on the direction of conversion.

  • EMC

    Electromagnetic Compatibility

    EMC is the ability of electrical equipment and systems to function properly in their electromagnetic environment without impairing each other’s functions. Otherwise we would speak of electromagnetic interference (EMI).

  • EMF

    Electromotive Force

    When a non-electrical source is converting other forms of energy into electrical energy, EMF is produced. Eventhough the word "force" is used, EMF doesn't actually describe a physical force, but the voltage produced by a non-electrical system. For example a generator is producing EMF by convertig mechnical energy.

  • EV

    Electric Vehicle

    Generic term used for vehicles which run on electric power.

  • EVSE

    Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment

    Another term used to refer to charging stations for plug-in electric vehicles.

  • f_s,1

    Fundamental Stator Frequency

  • FCEV

    Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle

    An FCEV is an EV which uses a fuel cell as its source of propulsion, sometimes with an additional small battery. The electricity for these vehicles comes from oxygen (from the air) and compressed hydrogen.

  • FDC

    Fast Data Channel

    Data channel of the SENT bus protocol.

  • FI switch

    Fault-current circuit breaker

  • FIFO


    FIFO is a scheduling policy used in multitasking operating systems, where the tasks are executed in the order of arrival.

  • FOC

    Field Oriented Control

    Vector control for the control of electric motors.

  • Fuzz Testing

    Fuzz Testing

    Fuzz Testing or Fuzzing is an automated software testing technique that involves providing invalid, unexpected, or random data as inputs to a computer program.

  • FW


  • GaN

    Gallium Nitride

    Abbreviation is also used to directly refer to semiconductor devices made from this material.

  • GTO Thyristor

    Gate Turn-Off Thyristor

  • HLC

    High Level Communication

  • HRRN

    Highest Response Ratio Next

    HRRN is a scheduling policy used in multitasking operating systems, where the task with the highest response ration is executed next. The response ratio takes the execution time and the waiting time into account.

  • HSM

    Hardware Security Module

    A Hardware Security Module secures cryptographic procedures and ensures secure, encrypted data exchange.

  • HV

    High Voltage

  • HW


  • IBM

    International Business Machines Corporation

    IBM is an American multinational technology company with a focus on computer hardware and software as well as consulting.

  • IC-CPD

    In-Cable Control and Protection Device

    This device contains a fault-current circuit breaker, communicates with the vehicle and controls the charging process.

  • ICGT

    Integrated Gate-Commutated Thyristor

  • IDPS

    Intrusion Detection and Prevention Systems

    IDPS generate events and provide functions that can defend against a detected attack.

  • IEC 61851

    IEC 61851

    European standard on wired charging of electric vehicles.

  • IGBT

    Insulated-Gate Bipolar Transistor

  • IM

    Induction Machine

    Also called "Asynchronous Machine".

  • IOC

    Inter OS-Application Communicator

    AUTOSAR™ introduces the Inter OS-Application Communicator that supports the communication between OS-Applications located on the same, or on different cores.

  • ISO

    International Organization for Standardization

    The ISO develops international standards.

  • L_d

    Inductance in d-Axis

    Here the rotor is aligned with the poles.

  • L_q

    Inductance in q-Axis

    Here the rotor is aligned with the gaps.

  • M

    Moment of Torque

    This is often simply refered to as "moment" or "torque".

  • MCU

    Microcontroller Unit

    Semiconductor chip that contains one or more processors and peripheral functions at the same time.

  • MPU

    Memory Protection Unit

    The memory protection unit provides memory protection. This can include the assignment of memory partitions, which can be accessed only with memory access permission.

  • NEV

    New Energy Vehicle

    An umbrella term for vehicles with one of the following drive technologies: BEV, PHEV or FCEV. It does not include HEV without a plug-in. This term is mainly used in China.

  • NIST

    National Institute of Standards and Technology

    NIST is a US agency of the United States Depeartment of Commerce. It is focused on standardisation processes.

  • NSA

    National Security Agency

    NSA is the national-level intelligence agency of the USA.

  • nsyn

    (Rotational) Speed of the Stator Field

  • NVH

    Noise, Vibration, and Harshness

    As the name implies, it describes the study and modification of the noise and vibration of vehicles, as well as the subjectively measured harshness.

  • OBC-Device

    On-Board Charging Device

    A charging device with rectifier built into the EV. It is necessary for changing AC to DC.

  • OBD

    On-Board Diagnostics

    is a vehicle diagnostic system. During driving operation, all systems that influence exhaust emissions are monitored, as well as other important control units.

  • OCV

    Open-Circuit Voltage

    The OCV is given as the difference of electrical potential between two terminals of a device when this device is disconnected from a circuit.

  • OEM

    Original Equipment Manufacturer

    A manufacturer who doesn't market their own products. However, in the automotive industry, we also refer to car manufacturers in general as OEMs.

  • OFDM

    Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing

    Modulation method in high-level communication for electrical charging.

  • OS

    Operating System

    The operating system builds an interface between the hardware and the application software of a computer.

  • OSEK

    Offene Systeme und deren Schnittstellen für die Elektronik in Kraftfahrzeugen

    Open Systems and their Interfaces for the Electronics in Motor Vehicles


    OSEK Operating System

    Operating System defined by the OSEK consortium

  • OSI Model

    Open Systems Interconnection Model

    Conceptual model for network protocols as layers

  • OTA


    Vehicle updates via the Internet.

  • PCB

    Printed Circuit Board

  • PE

    Power Electronics

  • PEN-Testing

    Penetration Test

    A Penetration Test is an authorized simulated cyberattack that is performed to evaluate the security of the system.

  • PFC

    Power Factor Correction

  • PHEV

    Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    A PHEV has an on-board internal combustion engine-powered generator, but can also run on electric power with a battery, which is recharged via the plug.

  • PLC

    Powerline Communication

    Information is transmitted via a power cable.

  • PM

    Permanent Magnet

  • PPort

    Provided Port

    A PPort provides the elements defined in a port interface.

  • PSM

    Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machine

    Sometimes also refered to as PMSM.

  • PWM

    Pulse Width Modulation

    Modulation type in which a technical quantity alternates between two values.

  • R_TH

    Thermal Resistance

  • RPort

    Required Port

    A RPort requires the elements defined in a port interface.

  • RPPort

    Required Provided Port

    provides and requires the elements defined in a port interface.

  • RTE

    Runtime Environment

    The Runtime Environment is the realization of the Virtual Fuctional Bus.

  • SAE

    Society of Automotive Engineers

    Global association that develops standards and regulations for the automotive industry.

  • SC

    Scalability Class

    AUTOSAR OS is scalable to different use cases by introducing four scalability classes.

  • Schuko Plug

    Schuko Plug

    A shockproof plug. The name derives from the German acronym for "Schutz-Kontakt". These types of plugs and sockets are very common in Europe.

  • SCR

    Silicon Controlled Rectifier

  • SDM

    Slow Data Message

    Message sent via the slow data channel of the SENT bus protocol.

  • SENT

    Single Edge Nibble Transmission

    Standardized data protocol that regulates communication between sensors and control units in cars.

  • SiC

    Silicon Carbide

    Abbreviation is also used to directly refer to semiconductor devices made from this material.

  • SJN

    Shortest Job Next

    SJN is a scheduling policy used in multitasking operating systems, where the task with the shortest execution time is executed next.

  • SLAC

    Signal Level Attenuation Characterization

  • SOC

    State of Charge

    For an electric battery, SOC describes the level of charge relative to its capacity.

  • SOH

    State of Health

    For an electric battery, the SOH indicates the current condition of the battery in comparioson to its ideal condition.

  • SPN

    Substitution-Permutation Network

    SPN describes a certain type of block cipher (which uses substitutions and permutations). It can be found with AES.


    Space Vector PWM

  • SW


  • SW-C

    Software Component

    A software component is an element of a component based application and has defined interfaces to communicate with other components. AUTOSAR™ defines software components as architectural elements that provide and/or require interfaces and are connected to each other through the Virtual Function Bus to fulfill architectural responsibilities.


    Software Free Running Timer

    The Software Free Running Timer module provides a piece of code accessing one or more hardware timers.

  • T_rel

    Reluctance Torque

    Torque part out of saliency.

  • T_syn

    Synchronous Torque

    Torque part out of magnetic flux and current.

  • T_tot

    Total Torque

  • TARA

    Threat Analysis and Risk Assessment

    (TARA) is a method for identifying and assessing cyber vulnerabilities and selecting countermeasures that can mitigate them.

  • TLS

    Transport Layer Security

    TLS is an encryption protocol for secure data transmission on the Internet.

  • ToE

    Target of Evaluation

    is used in the IT security policy environment to designate a part of an IT system as an object for IT security evaluation.

  • TRNG

    True Random Number Generator

    is a hardware component that generates a string of random bits, which can be used as a cryptographic key.

  • U_ph

    Phase Voltage

    Usually, we are talking about the three-phase voltages v_a, v_b and v_c.


    United Nations Economic Commission for Europe

  • VFB

    Virtual Functional Bus

    The Virtual Functinal Bus ist the main communication concept of the AUTOSAR Classic Platform.

  • VFD

    Variable-Frequency Drive

    Frequency converter.

  • WCET

    Worst-Case Execution Time

    The WCET describes the maximum time it can take to execute a task on a specific hardware platform.

  • XOR


    Logic operation for two elements.