This directory lists and explains abbreviations that appear in Embedded Academy e-learning courses.
An electric current which periodically changes its direction and magnitude.
Advanced Encryption Standard
A symmetric encryption method, which is the successor of the DES.
American National Standards Institute
ANSI is an American organisation which coordinates the development of voluntary consensus standards in the USA. ANSI is a private non-profit organisation.
Application Programming Interface
The API is a software interface connecting computers or computer programs.
AUTOSAR Extensible Markup Language
An AUTOSAR xml file is an xml file standardized by AUTOSAR.
A scenario that describes the steps and ways in which the attacker could exploit a vulnerability.
Automotive Software Process Improvement and Capability Determination
Standard in the automotive industry, which is based on the current version of the ISO/IEC 330xx series.
AUTomotive Open System ARchitecture
Standard which establishes an open and standardized software architecture for automotive electronic control units.
AUTOSAR™ Operating System
Operating System defined by AUTOSAR.
Autosar Secure Onboard Communication
SecOC is an AUTOSAR module that provides PDU (message) integrity and authentication.
Battery Electric Vehicle
BEV is a type of EV which uses the chemical energy stored in (rechargable) battery packs as its sole source of propulsion. Hence, instead of internal combustion engines, electric motors and motor controllers are used.
Controller Area Network
High speed bus system.
Controller Area Network Flexible Data Rate
CAN FD increases the effective data-rate by allowing longer data fields.
Constant Current Charging
A form of charging where the charger supplies a relatively constant current.
Compressed Natural Gas
CNG is a type of fuel gas. It is made out of natural gas (mainly composed of methane) and heavily compressed to less than 1% of its standard atmospheric pressure volume. Consequently, storage and distribution happen in hard containers.
Name of the connector system/line which is used for the transmission of communication information.
Central Processing Unit
The CPU is a very important part of every computer. It does calculations and executes instructions.
Cyclic Redundancy Check
Complex procedure using polynomial division to check data in order to detect errors in the transmission or storage of data.
Coefficient of Thermal Expansion
The CTE indicates how much a material can expand upon heating.
Constant Voltage Charging
In constant voltage charging, the full current of the charger can flow into the battery. This is stopped when the power supply reaches the pre-set voltage.
Electric current which flows in only one direction.
Direct Copper Bonded
A type of substrate which is often used in power modules due its good thermal conductivity. It is made out of a ceramic tile (commonly alumina) and copper sheets.
Data Encryption Standard
A symmetric encryption method.
Depth of Discharge
The depth of discharge indicates the percentage (or fraction) of the capacity which has been removed from a fully-charged battery.
Direct Torque Control
Method used in variable-frequency drives to control the torque (and thus finally the speed) of three-phase AC electric motors.
Electronic Control Unit
Electronic module, which is responsible for the control and adjustment of the operation of a car or machine.
A device which converts electrical energy into mechanical energy and vice versa. Hence, we differ between motor mode and generator mode depending on the direction of conversion.
EMC is the ability of electrical equipment and systems to function properly in their electromagnetic environment without impairing each other’s functions. Otherwise we would speak of electromagnetic interference (EMI).
When a non-electrical source is converting other forms of energy into electrical energy, EMF is produced. Eventhough the word "force" is used, EMF doesn't actually describe a physical force, but the voltage produced by a non-electrical system. For example a generator is producing EMF by convertig mechnical energy.
Generic term used for vehicles which run on electric power.
Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment
Another term used to refer to charging stations for plug-in electric vehicles.
Fundamental Stator Frequency
Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle
An FCEV is an EV which uses a fuel cell as its source of propulsion, sometimes with an additional small battery. The electricity for these vehicles comes from oxygen (from the air) and compressed hydrogen.
Fast Data Channel
Data channel of the SENT bus protocol.
Fault-current circuit breaker
FIFO is a scheduling policy used in multitasking operating systems, where the tasks are executed in the order of arrival.
Field Oriented Control
Vector control for the control of electric motors.
Fuzz Testing or Fuzzing is an automated software testing technique that involves providing invalid, unexpected, or random data as inputs to a computer program.
Abbreviation is also used to directly refer to semiconductor devices made from this material.
Gate Turn-Off Thyristor
High Level Communication
Highest Response Ratio Next
HRRN is a scheduling policy used in multitasking operating systems, where the task with the highest response ration is executed next. The response ratio takes the execution time and the waiting time into account.
Hardware Security Module
A Hardware Security Module secures cryptographic procedures and ensures secure, encrypted data exchange.
International Business Machines Corporation
IBM is an American multinational technology company with a focus on computer hardware and software as well as consulting.
In-Cable Control and Protection Device
This device contains a fault-current circuit breaker, communicates with the vehicle and controls the charging process.
Integrated Gate-Commutated Thyristor
Intrusion Detection and Prevention Systems
IDPS generate events and provide functions that can defend against a detected attack.
European standard on wired charging of electric vehicles.
Insulated-Gate Bipolar Transistor
Also called "Asynchronous Machine".
Inter OS-Application Communicator
AUTOSAR™ introduces the Inter OS-Application Communicator that supports the communication between OS-Applications located on the same, or on different cores.
International Organization for Standardization
The ISO develops international standards.
Inductance in d-Axis
Here the rotor is aligned with the poles.
Inductance in q-Axis
Here the rotor is aligned with the gaps.
Moment of Torque
This is often simply refered to as "moment" or "torque".
Semiconductor chip that contains one or more processors and peripheral functions at the same time.
Memory Protection Unit
The memory protection unit provides memory protection. This can include the assignment of memory partitions, which can be accessed only with memory access permission.
New Energy Vehicle
An umbrella term for vehicles with one of the following drive technologies: BEV, PHEV or FCEV. It does not include HEV without a plug-in. This term is mainly used in China.
National Institute of Standards and Technology
NIST is a US agency of the United States Depeartment of Commerce. It is focused on standardisation processes.
National Security Agency
NSA is the national-level intelligence agency of the USA.
(Rotational) Speed of the Stator Field
Noise, Vibration, and Harshness
As the name implies, it describes the study and modification of the noise and vibration of vehicles, as well as the subjectively measured harshness.
On-Board Charging Device
A charging device with rectifier built into the EV. It is necessary for changing AC to DC.
is a vehicle diagnostic system. During driving operation, all systems that influence exhaust emissions are monitored, as well as other important control units.
The OCV is given as the difference of electrical potential between two terminals of a device when this device is disconnected from a circuit.
Original Equipment Manufacturer
A manufacturer who doesn't market their own products. However, in the automotive industry, we also refer to car manufacturers in general as OEMs.
Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing
Modulation method in high-level communication for electrical charging.
The operating system builds an interface between the hardware and the application software of a computer.
Offene Systeme und deren Schnittstellen für die Elektronik in Kraftfahrzeugen
Open Systems and their Interfaces for the Electronics in Motor Vehicles
OSEK Operating System
Operating System defined by the OSEK consortium
Open Systems Interconnection Model
Conceptual model for network protocols as layers
Vehicle updates via the Internet.
Printed Circuit Board
A Penetration Test is an authorized simulated cyberattack that is performed to evaluate the security of the system.
Power Factor Correction
Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle
A PHEV has an on-board internal combustion engine-powered generator, but can also run on electric power with a battery, which is recharged via the plug.
Information is transmitted via a power cable.
A PPort provides the elements defined in a port interface.
Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machine
Sometimes also refered to as PMSM.
Pulse Width Modulation
Modulation type in which a technical quantity alternates between two values.
A RPort requires the elements defined in a port interface.
Required Provided Port
provides and requires the elements defined in a port interface.
The Runtime Environment is the realization of the Virtual Fuctional Bus.
Society of Automotive Engineers
Global association that develops standards and regulations for the automotive industry.
AUTOSAR OS is scalable to different use cases by introducing four scalability classes.
A shockproof plug. The name derives from the German acronym for "Schutz-Kontakt". These types of plugs and sockets are very common in Europe.
Silicon Controlled Rectifier
Slow Data Message
Message sent via the slow data channel of the SENT bus protocol.
Single Edge Nibble Transmission
Standardized data protocol that regulates communication between sensors and control units in cars.
Abbreviation is also used to directly refer to semiconductor devices made from this material.
Shortest Job Next
SJN is a scheduling policy used in multitasking operating systems, where the task with the shortest execution time is executed next.
Signal Level Attenuation Characterization
State of Charge
For an electric battery, SOC describes the level of charge relative to its capacity.
State of Health
For an electric battery, the SOH indicates the current condition of the battery in comparioson to its ideal condition.
SPN describes a certain type of block cipher (which uses substitutions and permutations). It can be found with AES.
Space Vector PWM
A software component is an element of a component based application and has defined interfaces to communicate with other components. AUTOSAR™ defines software components as architectural elements that provide and/or require interfaces and are connected to each other through the Virtual Function Bus to fulfill architectural responsibilities.
Software Free Running Timer
The Software Free Running Timer module provides a piece of code accessing one or more hardware timers.
Torque part out of saliency.
Torque part out of magnetic flux and current.
Threat Analysis and Risk Assessment
(TARA) is a method for identifying and assessing cyber vulnerabilities and selecting countermeasures that can mitigate them.
Transport Layer Security
TLS is an encryption protocol for secure data transmission on the Internet.
Target of Evaluation
is used in the IT security policy environment to designate a part of an IT system as an object for IT security evaluation.
True Random Number Generator
is a hardware component that generates a string of random bits, which can be used as a cryptographic key.
Usually, we are talking about the three-phase voltages v_a, v_b and v_c.
United Nations Economic Commission for Europe
Virtual Functional Bus
The Virtual Functinal Bus ist the main communication concept of the AUTOSAR Classic Platform.
Worst-Case Execution Time
The WCET describes the maximum time it can take to execute a task on a specific hardware platform.
Logic operation for two elements.